12. Acids in the Geocubic
+ Charge Bonds
by Tom Gilmore
All graphics by Tom Gilmore
An acid is generally an aqueous solution with the ability to react with certain metals, bases, or alkalis (and may form salts). Most acidic compounds contain Hydrogen. It is conventionally thought that a Hydrogen atom from the acidic compound is transferred to the water molecule and forms “Hydronium” (H3O), but the Geocubic Model shows that this is a fallacy (H3O cannot form). The Hydronium hypothesis is also contradicted by the fact that Carbon dioxide (CO2) will dissolve in water to create a carbonic acidic aqueous solution, and there is no Hydrogen atom in carbon dioxide, so there would be no 3rd Hydrogen atom supposedly making Hydronium.
Void Nuclide Attraction
That there exists intermolecular attraction involving Hydrogen is known to bind nucleobases in DNA, but due to academic rigidity this principle has not been applied to acids. Nor is it understood what is behind the intermolecular binding force.
The Geocubic Model reveals what is behind the intermolecular binding. In the Geocubic Model a Hydrogen atom will always be bonded, either as a Hydrogen molecule or included in a more complex molecule. Atomic bonding involves transfers of Spheres (a Proton in a Neutrino). The bonded Hydrogen atom will either have 2 Spheres or no Spheres (Void). When a Hydrogen atom is Void (empty) it projects a weak intermolecular attraction that certain active Elements respond to.
The Nuclide of an atom is not just the Baryons (Protons and Neutrons) themselves, but also a weak energy bundle taken from the Baryons. Only a Hydrogen atom can be Void in a bond. When the Hydrogen atom is Void the pull of the Nuclide has no Baryons to center it, and the pull results in an intermolecular attraction.
The intermolecular attraction is represented in the water molecule diagram below by dotted green arrows (each Void Hydrogen can form only one link).
In the simplified bonding diagrams in this article the Atomic Number of the Element (the number of Protons in the Nuclide) is in black, arrows show transfers of Protons, and the bonded Proton counts are in red.
Acidity is conventionally measured by the acidic activity level. A logarithmic scale is used called the pH (percentage Hydronium). A pH of 7 is neutral, and lower is acidic (if higher, called a base).
Hydrochloric Acid is (HCl) in aqueous solution.
In Geocubic notation HCl
Hydrogen(1)Empty-form(0) + Chlorine(17)Argon-form(18),
There is a dual linkage in the acidic solution of HCl. The Void Hydrogen atom in the Hydrochloric acidic molecule attracts the Oxygen atom in a water molecule, and a Void Hydrogen atom of the water molecule attracts the Chlorine atom of the Hydrochloric molecule. In the diagram below of the acidic solution, the intermolecular attraction linkages are shown with dotted green arrows.
Only certain active Elements are subject to the intermolecular attraction, among them,
Nitrogen(7), Oxygen(8), and the Halogen Elements (such as Fluorine(9) and Chlorine(17)).
Although Phosphorus(15) and Sulfur(16) are active Elements they are immune to the attraction. This is evident from their hydro-molecules as demonstrated following.
With Sulfur(16), two Void Hydrogen atoms are
attached in Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), but it is not acidic. However when 4 Oxygen(8)
atoms are incorporated in the Sulfide (H2SO4), the
compound is acidic (the Sulfur’s bonded form drops back an octave to S(16,10)).
In shorthand, [2H(1,0)+S(16,18)], drops back to [2H(1,0)+S(16,10)+4O(8,10)].
The Oxygen atoms in the Sulfuric acidic molecule link to the Void Hydrogen atoms in water, and the Oxygen atoms in water link to Void Hydrogen atoms in the Sulfuric acidic molecule. The multiple linkage locations allow Sulfuric acid and water molecules to link in chains.
In stepping back another atomic number, to Phosphorus(15), the chemical Phosphine (H3P) is not acidic, but becomes phosphoric acid (H3PO4) by adding 4 Oxygen(8) to drop Phosphorus back an octave in form.
[3H(1,0)+P(15,18)] drops to [3H(1.0)+P(15,10)+4O(8,10)].
One of the super-strong acids is Fluorosulfuric acid (HSO3F)
Charge (Electron Transfer) Bonds
Sulfur(16) molecules normally take the S8 form of 8 Sulfur atoms alternating between Argon-form(18) and Silicon-form(14), as shown below left. It can also take the similar forms of S6, S4, and S2, as shown, but the ultramarine blue Lapis Lazuli S3 molecule requires a charge transfer.
A Charge Bond acts against the Law of Lesser Energy by transferring energy to support the bond. As shown above, the Element Silicon(14) has 3 layers of 5,4,5, and has 2 perpendicular Bias planes of 5 Spheres each (total 10), while the Element Magnesium(12) has the greater energy of 2 diagonal Bias planes of 8 and 4 (shared 6 and 6) Spheres (total 12). As a consequence, since the S3 molecule reverts the central Sulfur(16) to Magnesium-Form(12) which has more energy than the Silicon-form(14), it requires the energy differential be transferred to the central Sulfur (blue arrow in diagram above) in the form of Electron transfer..