By Tom Gilmore
All graphics by Tom Gilmore
Part II – Eclipses
Part III – Interconnectedness
Part IV – The Age of the Great Pyramid
Part I – The Astronomical Legacy
The “Celestial Globe” of astronomy employs the same spherical mapping system of lines of latitude and longitude that map the surface of the Earth. Longitude lines are great circles of the sphere that pass through the poles (a great circle has the diameter of the sphere). Latitude lines are circles parallel to the equator, and the diameter of the circles diminishes as the lines approach the poles.
Celestial longitude zero meridian is at the beginning of the constellation Aries, but the longitude is expressed in twelve 30 degree segments, the 12 constellations on the Belt of the Zodiac (refer to Part IV).
The circular lines of latitude and longitude are measured by nested divisions. The circle is divided into 360 degrees, with 60 minute (small) subdivisions of each degree, and a second subdivision of minutes into 60 seconds. Each geographic second is divided into 100 "geographic feet".
In the system of time measure, the equator is divided into 24 "hours" of 15 degrees each. Each hour is similarly divided into 60 minutes and 60 seconds, and each second of time as measured on the equator is divided into 1000 "cubits". Cubits were used in navigating the oceans, because in this way the distance measure is commensurate with time measure. Using the stars to locate one’s longitudinal position requires knowing the time of night so that the daily shift of the stars in the night sky can be used to adjust a stellar sighting to a fixed time, and reveal the location on the Earth where that sighting occurs. Consequently, measuring with cubits made the calculations easier.
(A cubit is equal to 1.5 geographic feet. Refer to the article on Earth Measures for more detail.)
Part II - Eclipses
The plane of Earth’s orbit is called the Ecliptic because the Moon also orbits the Earth approximately on this plane, and in passing between the Sun and Earth sometimes causes a solar eclipse, and in passing behind the Earth sometimes causes a lunar eclipse.
The planets in our solar system are orbiting the Sun within 6 degrees of the plane of the ecliptic, and this region is called the Belt of the Zodiac.
The 4 inner rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are depicted above on the plane of the ecliptic. They are ringed by the asteroid belt, and the gaseous outer giant planets are far outside the asteroid belt.
The seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis. In the diagram below the Earth is depicted both upright and on its axis. The yellow line is the solar equator. In the upright depiction the red lines are the tropics of Capricorn and Cancer. In the tilted version the red line is the equator, and the solar equator (yellow) is revealed as the plane of the ecliptic projected onto the surface.
The equinoxes are where the solar equator intersects the Earth's equator. They mark the beginning of spring and fall.
Equinox and Solstice
The Sun seems to migrate up and down in relation to the Earth surface, but this is due to the tilt of the Earth axis as it revolves around the Sun. The result of the migration is longer and shorter days, and a shift of where on the horizon the Sun rises. The 2 equinoxes occur when the equator of the Earth aligns with the center of the Sun. At the equinoxes the length of day and night are equal all around the world. Midway in the Earth orbit between the equinoxes are the solstices, when the Sun reaches the maximum latitudinal extent of the Sun migration. The Northern Solstice is when the longest day in the northern hemisphere and shortest day in the southern hemisphere occurs, and visa-versa for the Southern Solstice. The Northern Solstice occurs in June and the Southern Solstice occurs in December.
Sidereal vs. Solar
Sidereal periods of rotations and revolutions of astral bodies are measured by a return to facing a given star, while solar periods measure by a return to facing the Sun. Due to the revolution of the Earth around the Sun in the same direction as the Earth's rotation, starting from facing the sun a full sidereal rotation of the Earth does not return to facing the Sun (see diagram below). The Earth must rotate an additional distance to complete a full solar day, since it has moved around the Sun during that time in its orbit. Since in a solar year one full rotation is added, the solar day is longer than the sidereal day by (24 hours x 60 minutes / 365.25 days), or 3.9425 minutes.
The gravitation from both the Sun and the Moon together cause the fluctuating tides. When the Sun and Moon are in line with the Earth, the gravity combines and the tides are maximized (called spring tides). When the Sun and Moon are at right angles to the Earth, the gravitational pull is largely cancelled, and the tides are minimized (called neap tides).
The Moon orbits the Earth in the same direction as the Earth's orbit around the Sun, so the sidereal orbit of the Moon is shorter than the phases of the Moon’s reflection of the Sun. The Moon's sidereal orbit is approximately 27.3 days (the duration actually marginally varies due to orbital dynamics). In a year the Moon orbits the Earth an average of 365.25 / 27.3 = 13.379 times. Since one extra sidereal orbit occurs each year, this means the Moon goes thru one less phase than orbit each year, so the Moon phases 12.379 times in a year. This confirms the approximate 29.5 day synodic period (phase cycle) of the Moon, since (365.25 / 12.379 = 29.5).
The Lunar Orbit Precession Nodes
The Moon orbits the Earth with a tilt of about 5 degrees from the Ecliptic (blue ellipse in diagram below is Moon orbit, and red ellipse is the Ecliptic). These two orbital planes intersect at two nodes, and these nodes are in a slow retrograde precession around the Earth, taking 18.6 years to complete a circuit. Twice a year the nodes will line up the Sun, Earth and Moon, and eclipses will occur if this corresponds with the Full or New Moon. The eclipses can be predicted by calculations of the lunar phases in conjunction with the precession of the nodes.
There is no doubt the Stonehenge Circle served to mark significant events involving the Sun, Earth and Moon, such as the solstices and equinoxes. An outer ring of 56 depressions known as the Aubry Holes may have been used to mark the 18.6 year cycle of precession of the Moon’s nodes, to predict eclipses. By using 56 positions, the fraction of close to 2/3 of a year is brought back to an even year in 3 cycles, since 18-2/3 x 3 = 56. At the vernal equinox a post could have been moved from one hole to the next, simply as a means to track the 56 year cycle.
Lunar and Solar Eclipses
Eclipses of the Moon occur when the Full Moon passes behind the Earth and into its shadow (top diagram below). Eclipses of the Sun occur when the Moon is New, meaning the Sun is behind it, and the shadow of the moon falls on the surface of the Earth (bottom diagram below). Because the shadow from the moon is conical in form, the eclipse as viewed from the Earth is restricted to a certain portion of the surface (somewhat larger than in the not-proportional diagram below).
Even though the Sun is far distant from Earth its far larger size means that the light Earth receives is not parallel, but rather converges upon it. The shadow of the Earth is a cone shape receding from the direction of the Sun, and is called the umbra. The light rays that cross to opposite edges of the Earth also cast a faint shadow called the penumbra (see lunar eclipse diagram above). This penumbra shadow is diluted by the direct sunlight, only the umbra is totally dark.
Part III -- Interconnectedness
The Mutual Orbit
In fact all revolving bodies share their revolution, and the fulcrum of the shared motion is dictated by the relative masses of the bodies. If the two bodies are of equal mass they revolve around each other with the fulcrum midway between them. In the case of the Earth and Moon this fulcrum (called the barycenter) is about 1,100 miles inside the body of the Earth (Earth has a diameter of about 7640 miles). (The barycenter is shown in the lunar eclipse diagram above by the red line with a black dot at the fulcrum.)
All closed arcs are ellipses, which have 2 points of focus controlling the shape of the ellipse. A circle is an ellipse where the foci coincide. The ellipse is elongated the further apart the foci are. In an orbit situation the heavier body is said to be orbited, even though it is a mutual orbit. In an orbit the orbited body is located at one of the foci, and the orbiting body is at perigee when it is closest to the orbited body, and is at apogee when it is furthest from the orbited body.
The gravity, not the size of an object, is the controlling factor of which body is the orbited body. Sirius is a dual-sun system (about half of the solar systems in our galaxy are dual-sun systems). Sirius A is a “main-sequence” sun (similar to our sun) with very nearly half the gravity of Sirius B, a white dwarf sun. The gravity of Sirius A is 4.33 cgs (centimeter/gram/second) and Sirius B is 8.57 cgs (8.66 would be double). The two suns are in mutual orbit, with the fulcrum closer to the heavier Sirius B, as illustrated below.
The Elliptical Variance of Orbital Velocity
All orbits are elliptical. The orbital motion is fastest during perigee (closest approach) and slowest during apogee (furthest distance). The astronomer Kepler determined through observation and mathematical analysis that due to the variance of orbital speed by proximity, the triangular area defined by the motion of an orbiting body is equal for any equal period of time for any position in the orbit. This is diagrammed below for a 1-month period in the Earth orbit.
Strange Synchronicity of the Moon
The rotation of the Moon is synchronized with the period of its orbit such that one side of the Moon always faces Earth. Astro-physicists theorize that long ago when the Moon was in a fluid molten state, the massive gravity from Earth caused huge tides, and the friction from these tides slowed the rotation until the synchronicity eliminated the friction, however if this were the case one would expect that the moon would have solidified in an ovoid, squished by the gravity. Another peculiarity of the orbit of the Moon is that it is more nearly circular than normal for orbits, and orbits at a distance such that when at perigee, an eclipse of the Sun nearly exactly covers the Sun, and these proportions are suspiciously circumstantial. There are other suspicious facts regarding the moon. The craters are too shallow for their size, and there is no wind or water to have filled them with erosion. Especially concerning is that NASA has not released detailed images of the back side of the moon, which clearly could have been produced by the orbiting probes. Even the unnecessarily blurry images of the front side show suspicious shapes on the surface that defy natural explanation. As with all evidence that threatens the establishment stranglehold, the facts are obscured, debunked, and disregarded, in order to maintain an ignorant and deluded population.
Part IV -- The Age of the Great Pyramid
There are a number of factors that point to a date of 10,500 BC for the establishment of the layout of the Giza complex, the carving of the Sphinx, and the construction of the (50 stone layer) truncated portion of the Great Pyramid (Khufu only finished the top portion).
The Earth’s Axis Wobble
The axis of the Earth wobbles in the opposite direction of the rotation. The Earth’s axis is always at approximately 23.5 degrees angle to the plane of the Ecliptic (plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun), but the wobble changes the direction of the angle of the axis in relation to the fixed stars, such that the constellations rising on the horizon at the vernal equinox shift over time. The total axis change is double the tilt, or a quite significant 47 degrees.
Currently the vernal equinox occurs at the cusp between the constellations of Pisces and Aquarius, moving into Aquarius. With the short time of modern human scientific measurements being made, we have only measured a small segment of a long circuit, and the wobble is likely to be an ellipse, which means the rate of precession varies during the circuit, so the “official” estimates of the duration of the wobble are actually guesses. The Sumerians considered the precession to take around 25,000 years to complete a circuit. The wobble goes backward through the Signs.
Three Factors Suggesting the Age of the Great Pyramid
1. The Sphinx (a lion) is facing in the direction in which, due to the precession of the Earth's axis, the constellation of Leo (a lion) was rising on the eastern horizon at the vernal equinox in 10,500 BC, because the cusp of Leo rising at the vernal equinox is just opposite our current position, or six Signs back in time, or half the circuit of around 25,000 years, which is 12,500 years ago, which is 10,500 BC
2. By overlaying the layout of the 3 stars of Orion's Belt on the 3 pyramids of Giza, it has been shown that the locations of the 3 pyramids match with the positions of the 3 stars, and the relative sizes of the 3 pyramids have been shown to match with the relative brightness of the 3 stars. Due to the precession of the Earth’s axis, the constellations shift in the night sky over time. The significance of this in ascribing a date for the establishment of the layout of the Giza complex is that it is around 10,500 BC when the angle of the 3 pyramids of Giza to the horizon match with the angle of Orion's Belt to the horizon at the vernal equinox.
The line through the 3 stars of Orion’s Belt intersects with the star Sirius, which suggests the Giza layout is pointing to Sirius.
The wobble causes a shift of the seasonal weather patterns, due to the shifting annual orbital location when the seasons occur.
3. The enclosure around the Sphinx (a lion, the head of which was subsequently carved down to a vain Pharaoh’s likeness) corroborates the probable date of the pyramid construction. The edges of the excavated depression around the body of the lion exhibits evidence of extensive water erosion that could only have been produced before the region turned arid, and the estimated duration of the water erosion (2000 years) added to the estimated time when the region turned arid, 8500 BC, computes to 10,500 BC.