By Tom Gilmore
All graphics by Tom Gilmore
Index of all Articles
Part I - Eclipses
Sidereal vs. Solar
Sidereal periods of rotations and revolutions of astral bodies are measured by a return to facing a given star, while solar periods measure by a return to facing the Sun. Due to the revolution of the Earth around the Sun in the same direction as the Earth's rotation, starting from facing the sun a full sidereal rotation of the Earth does not return to facing the Sun (see diagram below). The Earth must rotate an additional distance to complete a full solar day, since it has moved around the Sun during that time in its orbit. Since in a solar year one full rotation is added, the solar day is longer than the sidereal day by (24 hours x 60 minutes / 365.25 days), or 3.9425 minutes.
The gravitation from both the Sun and the Moon together cause the fluctuating tides. When the Sun and Moon are in line with the Earth, the gravity combines and the tides are maximized (called spring tides). When the Sun and Moon are at right angles to the Earth, the gravitational pull is largely cancelled, and the tides are minimized (called neap tides).
The Moon orbits the Earth in the same direction as the Earth's orbit around the Sun, so the sidereal orbit of the Moon is shorter than the phases of the Moon’s reflection of the Sun. The Moon's sidereal orbit is approximately 27.3 days (the duration actually marginally varies due to orbital dynamics). In a year the Moon orbits the Earth an average of 365.25 / 27.3 = 13.379 times. Since one extra sidereal orbit occurs each year, this means the Moon goes thru one less phase than orbit each year, so the Moon phases 12.379 times in a year. This confirms the approximate 29.5 day synodic period (phase cycle) of the Moon, since (365.25 / 12.379 = 29.5).
The planets in our solar system are orbiting the Sun on the Belt of the Zodiac like a giant gyroscope.
This gyroscopic effect resists the gravity from the black hole at the center of our galaxy, and helps, along with the angular momentum, to keep the Sun and the other solar stars from falling into the “black hole” (the galactic central body), which has far less gravity than astrophysicists assume. Just because the “hole” is dark does not mean light cannot escape, it means no light is being emitted from the hole, and cannot penetrate the body located there.
The plane of Earth’s orbit is called the Ecliptic because the Moon also orbits the Earth approximately on this plane, and in passing between the Sun and Earth sometimes causes a solar eclipse, and in passing behind the Earth sometimes causes a lunar eclipse.
The Moon orbits the Earth with a tilt of about 5 degrees from the Ecliptic (blue ellipse in diagram below is Moon orbit, and red ellipse is the Ecliptic). These two orbital planes intersect at two nodes, and these nodes are in a slow retrograde precession around the Earth, taking 18.6 years to complete a circuit. Twice a year the nodes will line up the Sun, Earth and Moon, and eclipses will occur if this corresponds with the Full or New Moon. The eclipses can be predicted by calculations of the lunar phases in conjunction with the precession of the nodes.
Eclipses of the Moon occur when the Full Moon passes behind the Earth and into its shadow (top diagram below). Eclipses of the Sun occur when the Moon is New, meaning the Sun is behind it, and the shadow of the moon falls on the surface of the Earth (bottom diagram below). Because the shadow from the moon is conical in form, the eclipse as viewed from the Earth is restricted to a certain portion of the surface (somewhat larger than in the not-proportional diagram below).
Even though the Sun is far distant from Earth its far larger size means that the light Earth receives is not parallel, but rather converges upon it. The shadow of the Earth is a cone shape receding from the direction of the Sun, and is called the umbra. The light rays that cross to opposite edges of the Earth also cast a faint shadow called the penumbra (see lunar eclipse diagram above). This penumbra shadow is diluted by the direct sunlight, only the umbra is totally dark.
Part II -- Interconnectedness
The Mutual Orbit
In fact all revolving bodies share their revolution, and the fulcrum of the shared motion is dictated by the relative masses of the bodies. If the two bodies are of equal mass they revolve around each other with the fulcrum midway between them. In the case of the Earth and Moon this fulcrum (called the barycenter) is about 1,100 miles inside the body of the Earth (Earth has a diameter of about 7640 miles). (The barycenter is shown in the lunar eclipse diagram above by the red line with a black dot at the fulcrum.)
The rotation of the Moon is synchronized with the period of its orbit such that one side of the Moon always faces Earth. Astro-physicists theorize that long ago when the Moon was in a fluid molten state, the massive gravity from Earth caused huge tides, and the friction from these tides slowed the rotation until the synchronicity eliminated the friction, however if this were the case one would expect that the moon would have solidified in an ovoid, squished by the gravity. Another peculiarity of the orbit of the Moon is that it is more nearly circular than normal for orbits, and orbits at a distance such that when at perigee, an eclipse of the Sun nearly exactly covers the Sun, and these proportions are suspiciously circumstantial. There are other suspicious facts regarding the moon. The craters are too shallow for their size, and there is no wind or water to have filled them with erosion. Especially concerning is that NASA has not released detailed images of the back side of the moon, which clearly could have been produced by the orbiting probes. Even the unnecessarily blurry images of the front side show suspicious shapes on the surface that defy natural explanation. As with all evidence that threatens the establishment stranglehold, the facts are obscured, debunked, and disregarded, in order to maintain an ignorant and deluded population.
The Elliptical Variance of Orbital Velocity
All orbits are elliptical. The orbital motion is fastest during perigee (closest approach) and slowest during apogee (furthest distance). The astronomer Kepler determined through observation and mathematical analysis that due to the variance of orbital speed by proximity, the triangular area defined by the motion of an orbiting body is equal for any equal period of time for any position in the orbit. This is diagrammed below for a 1-month period in the Earth orbit.
Part III – The Age of the Great Pyramid
There are a number of factors that point to a date of 10,500 BC for the establishment of the layout of the Giza complex, the carving of the Sphinx, and the construction of the (50 stone layer) truncated portion of the Great Pyramid (Khufu only finished the top portion).
1. By overlaying the layout of the 3 stars of Orion's Belt on the 3 pyramids of Giza, it has been shown that the locations of the 3 pyramids match with the positions of the 3 stars, and the relative sizes of the 3 pyramids have been shown to match with the relative brightness of the 3 stars. Due to the precession of the Earth’s axis, the constellations shift in the night sky over time. The significance of this in ascribing a date for the establishment of the layout of the Giza complex is that it is around 10,500 BC when the angle of the 3 pyramids of Giza to the horizon match with the angle of Orion's Belt to the horizon at the vernal equinox. (The line through the 3 stars of Orion’s Belt intersects with the star Sirius, which means the Giza layout is pointing to Sirius).
2. The enclosure around the Sphinx (a lion, the head of which was subsequently carved down to a vain Pharaoh’s likeness) corroborates the probable date of the pyramid construction. The edges of the excavated depression around the body of the lion exhibits evidence of extensive water erosion that could only have been produced before the region turned arid, and the estimated duration of the water erosion (2000 years) added to the estimated time when the region turned arid, 8500 BC, computes to 10,500 BC.
3. The Sphinx (a lion) is facing in the direction in which, due to the precession of the Earth's axis, the constellation of Leo (a lion) was rising on the eastern horizon at the vernal equinox in 10,500 BC.
How this date is calculated:
The planets orbit the Sun on an approximate common plane, varying by 6 degrees. This 6 degree wide band is called the Belt of the Zodiac, where Zodiac refers to the 12 Astronomical Signs. The Signs are shorthand labels (see table at left below) of 12 segments of 300 each, totaling 3600. Each Sign is named after the traditional constellation of stars in that segment.
The axis of the Earth wobbles in the opposite direction of the rotation. The Earth’s axis is always at approximately 23.5 degrees angle to the plane of the Ecliptic (plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun), but the wobble changes the direction of the angle of the axis in relation to the fixed stars, such that the constellations rising on the horizon at the vernal equinox shift over time. Currently the vernal equinox occurs at the cusp between the constellations of Pisces and Aquarius, moving into Aquarius. With the short time of modern human scientific measurements being made, we have only measured a small segment of a long circuit, and although the wobble is likely to be an ellipse, which means the rate of precession varies during the circuit, the precession of the axis is generally considered to take around 25,000 years to complete a circuit, and goes backward through the Signs.
The cusp of Leo rising at the vernal equinox is just opposite our current position, or six Signs back in time, or half the circuit of around 25,000 years, which is 12,500 years ago, which is 10,500 BC
The Great Pyramid is located is at the center of the combined land mass of Africa and Asia, at 290 58' 45" latitude, which is close to the 30th parallel.
The geometry of the 30th parallel is that it is 1/3 of the distance on the surface from the equator to the north-pole, and that the center of the plane of the 30th parallel is 1/2 the distance from the center of the Earth to the north-pole, as diagrammed above.
Part IV – The Annual Calendar
Bohemian Tarot Cards
The Bohemian Tarot cards survived the Spanish Inquisition by disguising the knowledge contained on them. The traveling Gypsies preserved 56 cards called the Minor Arcanum, and used them for gambling.
The Minor Arcanum cards were copies of the 54 calendar cards used in Ancient Egypt to track the annual circuit of Earth around the Sun. The Bohemian version added 2 temporary cards (explained further on). Modern playing cards still preserve the 54 cards of the Ancient Egyptian calendar, but the symbolism on the cards has undergone a series of changes.
Fifty-two of the cards represent the 52 weeks of the year. The suits represent the 4 seasons, and
each season has 13 weeks. In Egypt
the four seasons were characterized by:
Inundation of the Nile in spring,
sowing the fields in summer,
harvesting in the fall,
and fallow in winter.
The Egyptian symbols were water for the inundation, hoes for tilling the soil, bushels for collecting the harvest, and the scepter for the Pharaoh's forced servitude over the winter.
The Bohemian suits substituted disguised symbols, to hide the true meaning from the eyes of the vicious pious perverts imposing the Spanish Inquisition.
Goblets represented the water, swords substituted for hoes (occult clue is disguised as a pacifist slogan "convert swords to plowshares"), coins were substituted to represent the cash value of the harvest, and a club replaced the scepter.
Modern suits use hearts (shape of goblets), spades (a reversion to the hoe), diamonds (value as in coins), and clubs (named for the club, but reverting to the shape of the tip of the scepter).
The Festival Days
Fifty two of the cards represent the 52 weeks, or 364 days. Since there are close to 365.25 days in a year, in Ancient Egypt every year there was a festival day, and every four years there were two festival days (our leap year). Two cards represented the festival days, bringing the total to 54 cards.. The cards showed flamboyantly dressed characters representing the musicians (bards) performing at the festivals. The bards were commonly called “Jacks”.
The year is 365.2425 days. This was not a problem for the ancient calendars where the year began with the vernal equinox (March 21), because the second festival day was simply cancelled when the equinox shifted back one day. This only happened at the ending year of 3 out of 4 centuries. In counting years, the leap years were observed on the years divisible by 4, but not on years divisible by 100 unless also divisible by 400.
Disguises were introduced in the Bohemian cards to hide the calendar, due to the Inquisition, which suppressed any suspected knowledge with torture and executions.
Originally the 13 cards of each season were numbered 1 to 13, but in the Bohemian decks the weeks 11, 12, and 13 were disguised as princes, queens, and kings.
There were 2 Jack (festival) cards.
The Bohemian versions added 2 fake Jacks, and the resultant 4 Jacks were
distributed in the suits like the other cards.
The 2 fake Jacks were given one eye as a clue.
The calendar cards were re-established by French occultists after the Reformation, reverting to 54 cards. The face-cards were retained for continuity, but the Prince cards were replaced with the Jacks because the Prince looked too much like the King. The 2 festival cards were reintroduced as jugglers or clowns, now called Jokers. As Occultism was turned into a taboo subject by religious bigotry (that had no problem with the evil of gambling), the calendar origin was forgotten.
Due to the repugnancy of royal rule to the democratic leaning west, the cards for the 1st week of each season were renamed "Aces" and took gambling primacy away from the King cards.
Part V – Astronomical Megaliths of Pre-History
A megalith is a very large and heavy stone that has been put in place (not just laying around in nature). Many of the megaliths are carved, such as massive tall Egyptian obelisks, immense statues on Easter Island, 8-foot diameter spherical stones carved with faces in South America, and large egg-shaped spiral-carved tombstones found from Ireland to Norway. There are mysterious walls and pyramids around the world that incorporate ultra-massive stones. Many of the megalithic sites have astronomical significance, and many pyramid complexes are laid out to match star constellations. At many sites there are walls constructed of variable size and shape stones that are so finely matched that no gaps are allowed between them and no mortar is necessary, and these incorporate massive multi-ton behemoths. At Machu Picchu the massive stones in some walls have clearly been cut from the face of opposing cliffs in what appears to be an impossible method even with modern technology. Bear in mind when evaluating the bullshit espoused in mainstream documentaries that stone cannot be dated, and “experts” are just fakers and sycophants.
There are many circular megalithic sites in the British Isles, including Castlerigg Circle, Swinside Circle, Callanish Circle, Avebury Circle, and the Ring of Brodgar, but the circle at Stonehenge is significantly different, in that the standing stones are connected by lintels (horizontal beams). These lintels are behind the term “henge”.
There is no doubt the Stonehenge Circle served to mark the significant events involving the Sun, Earth and Moon, such as the solstices and equinoxes. An outer ring of 56 depressions known as the Aubry Holes may have been used to mark the 18.6 year cycle of precession of the Moon’s nodes, to predict eclipses (refer to the explanation of the nodes in the previous section of this article). By using 56 positions, the fraction of close to 2/3 of a year is brought back to an even year in 3 cycles, since 18-2/3 x 3 = 56. At the vernal equinox a post could have been moved from one hole to the next, simply as a means to track the 56 year cycle.
The Romans documented Stonehenge as being ancient as far back as 450 BC. Before 2000 BC Britain was uninhabited. Druids can be traced back to as far as around 2000 BC, but they lived starkly primitive lives, without clothing other than furs and hides. They lived solitary, nasty, brutish, and brief lives scraping an existence from the land. They are considered, perhaps falsely, to have practiced bloodthirsty human sacrifice at the sites of the megalithic circles. It is preposterous that they would build megalithic astronomically accurate engineering marvels, at great exertion, using primitive tools, for no practical purpose other than bloody sacrifice.
For humans and their predecessors, building structures with stones or bricks of moderate size and weight has been preferred over using massive heavy stones, and this suggests that, at the ancient time of their construction, transporting and handling megaliths was not difficult, and overall took less effort than using smaller stones. This is an important evidentiary clue.
Although it is estimated as much as half the original stone is missing at Stonehenge, enough remains to suggest the circle was about 100 feet in diameter and 16 feet tall, consisting of 30 uprights and 30 lintels. Enclosed by the circle were five "doorways" up to 30 feet tall, with lintel slabs (weighing as much as 15 tons) connecting two standing stones.
The megaliths at Stonehenge have magnetic properties, and are of two varieties of sandstone harder than granite known as dolerite bluestone and sarsen bluestone. The sarsen slabs were brought from Marlborough Downs, about 20 miles north, which represents a significant task by itself, but the more than 80 dolerite bluestone slabs, some weighing 50 tons, have been traced to a Welsh quarry 130 miles northwest of Salisbury Plain. With primitive tools and materials, and primitive roadways if any, this is an absurd distance to transport such heavy stones, unless there was a specific utility associated with the stones. This strongly suggests the magnetic properties were integral to the functional purpose of constructing it.
The stones at Stonehenge appear to have always been rough and irregular, indicating that a finished appearance of the circle was not necessary to the purpose. If it had been intended to be a temple, the stones would have been refined. Stonehenge is aligned with all the major astronomical positions, but its axis is not pointed north. This suggests it was not meant as an observatory, but that nevertheless its astronomical orientation was significant.
There is a circular outer ditch surrounding the stone circle, and breaching this at a northeastern angle is an outlet of a broad "roadway". This flat road-like area terminates at an angle to a flattened strip running east/west called the "Cursus". The Cursus resembles a landing strip.
Merlin is reputed to have known the secret behind the mysterious stone circle. He claimed the stones were sent through the air to their destination (hence the Cursus). He is said to have described the operation of Stonehenge as the "Dance of the Giants". The "Giants" reference is to the Titans, who were up to 9 feet tall. The "Dance" reference is to the flash and crackle of erratic electric arcs. This is consistent with folklore concerning Merlin's association with electricity.
It could be that Stonehenge contained an enormous angled radio dish used to send an SOS to Sirius, requesting a rescue mission for the stranded Titans. This ties-in with the microwave transmissions sent from the Great Pyramid of Giza, and would account for the ancient Egyptian expectation of a “ladder from heaven” (the requested rescue mission from Sirius).
The Great Pyramid of Giza was initially truncated at the 50th layer, and the Grand Gallery served as an astronomical observatory. Evidence suggests that the so-called Queen’s and King’s Chambers were involved in sending microwave SOS signals to the star Sirius.