The Actual Electron Spin
by Tom Gilmore
All graphics by Tom Gilmore
The Electromagnetic Helix Spiral
The Electro-magnetic wave is defined as a sine-wave with a "spin". The sine-wave spin is a lateral rotation of the wave. The result is a helix spiral.
In trigonometry, the sine and cosine are the 2 lines of a right triangle that are opposite the hypotenuse (see shaded triangle in the graphic below). The sine-wave is a plot of the points on the circumference of a circle with a radius of 1, as measured on the Y-axis. (The cosine-wave is a plot of the points as measured on the X-axis.)
The “points” are a continuum of values in the imaginary transit around the circumference of the circle, beginning on the positive side of the X-axis. Another way this is expressed is with the angle (labeled “t”) of a radian going from 0 to 360 degrees, and intersecting with the circumference (called “sin(t)”).
The graph of the sine-wave is shown below. The circles above the sine-wave illustrate the movement of the radian in each quadrant of the sine-wave.
The radian begins the circuit from coinciding with the positive side of the X-axis (to the right). The position on the Y-axis is at zero. As the radian transits the circle counterclockwise, (1): the sin(t) value increases from 0 to 1 (when coinciding with the Y-axis), then (2): the value decreases back down to zero (lying on the negative X-axis). In the graph below of sin(t), this is the left half of the sine-wave. As the radian continues the transit, (3): the value continues decreasing down to –1 (at the Y-axis), and then (4): increases back up to zero (at the X-axis). In the graph, this is the right half of the sine wave. Since the circumference of a circle is (Pi x 2R), and R=1, the length of the sine-wave is 2Pi.
The mathematical sine-wave describes 2 dimensions of the wave. The spin is actually a measure of the wave along the Z-axis (3rd dimension), which is equal to the oscillation on the X-axis. The wave completes one sine-wave and one full spin in the distance of 2Pi. The spin is actually 1. It is commonly expressed as ˝ spin in the distance of Pi.
In the series of diagrams above, the cylinder below the sine-wave graph shows the 3-dimensional helix that the spin produces, and this wave is shown by itself below that.
The sine-wave helix is bi-directional. There is no cosine-wave, the “cosine-wave” is merely a section of the sine-wave offset from the continued sine-wave by the distance of Pi.
Helix to Positron/Negatron Spin
In the series of diagrams below, two Spheres are substituted for the cylinder, one under the up stroke of the wave, and one on the down stroke. Below that, the wave breaks in two, and forms a "baseball seam" on the Spheres, one going up, and one going down (positron and negatron).
The electromagnetic wave is bent to the surface, and forms loops that alternate in direction (due to the alternation of the electromagnetic wave).
The spin immediately reduces to its ground state (tighter loops), sending off 2 gamma rays containing the energy differential. (This reduction occurs because of the square power ratio detailed below).
The Geometry of Wave Conversion
There is a square power ratio of
surface area between a cylinder the length of 2Pi (the length of a sine wave),
and 2 Spheres of equal diameter to the cylinder.
(For this proof, the cylinder length is 2Pi and the cylinder and Sphere diameters are 1)
The surface area of a sphere is (4Pi x R2) so for a unit sphere with a radius of ˝, (4Pi x 1/22) = Pi
The surface area of a
cylinder is (circumference x length).
Circumference = (Pi x D). Length is 2Pi. Diameter is 1.
Thus the surface area is ((Pi x D) x 2Pi) = ((Pi x 1) x 2Pi) = (Pi x 2Pi) = 2Pi2
Since half the cylinder surface is Pi2 and a single sphere
surface is Pi (the square-root)
the total surface area of the 2 spheres equals the square-root of the surface area of the cylinder.
This square-root relationship of surface area is why after conversion of the photon’s wave to the electrons’ spins, the spins reduce to the ground state.
When the initial (called energized) electron spin reduces to a tighter loop it releases energy in the form of gamma rays. In order for the electromagnetic wave to be restored, two electron spins must become energized (by absorbing the correct wave-length of paired positron/negatron gamma rays). The Photon and Electron are the same particle, called a Photon when traveling on an electromagnetic wave, and called an Electron when spinning on a Sphere surface.
The Geo-Sphere is a compressed Neutrino (a spherical force field with a single Proton inside). The Electron is attracted to the Proton and this draws it to the outside surface of the compressed Neutrino (Sphere), which it cannot penetrate.
The path of the Electron crosses under the centers of all 12 edges of a cube with the Sphere’s unit diameter, as illustrated below left.
This spin model also explains the parallel and anti-parallel spin property, and the experimental determination that there are 8 different spin orientations. In the ground state there are 8 possible spins in relation to the containing cube (see diagram below). These 8 insure that any contained Sphere can have a different spin from all of it neighbors.
In the diagram above the front loop is shown in the 8 different directions corresponding to the 8 corners of the cube. This explains the known complexity of the anti-parallel spins. In effect all 8 are somewhat anti-parallel to each other, but there are symmetry groups. Each front loop is diagonal to the cube, and thus leans in 2 directions. The arrows in the diagram indicate these 2 directions for each spin. The spins are organized by anti-parallel pairs.
In the diagram above the 4 spins on the top row are each anti-parallel to the 4 spins on the bottom row (this is indicated by the vertical arrows that point in the direction of the front loop). The spins are broken into 2 groups of 4, those with front loops emerging from the right and left side of the cube, and those with front loops emerging from the top and bottom sides of the cube. These 2 groups of 4 are organized into anti-parallel pairs indicated by the horizontal arrows at the top.
In the Geocubic Model, for each Proton/Electron pair in an atom there is a compressed contained Sphere (the Neutrino), with a Proton inside the Sphere and an Electron spinning on the outside surface, held to the surface by the Coulomb attraction to the Proton inside. The Helium atom has 2 proton/electron pairs (2 compressed Spheres). This is diagrammed below showing the anti-parallel spins, which can be identified by having loops facing opposite directions.
The Electrons are shown as red dots on the spins.
There are major quantum issues that are explained by this model. It is known that each Element has different sets of electromagnetic absorption and emission quanta wave-lengths. This is explained by the fact that the Neutrinos are compressed to different sizes in different Elements because they have different numbers of Neutrinos compressed into the same sized unit cube. In addition, the internal arrangements result in varying Sphere sizes within a given Element. The different sizes of the compressed Neutrinos result in different size Electron Spins, absorbing and emitting different quantum-sized electromagnetic waves. The packing of the Neutrinos also explains the so-called "orbital shells" exhibited by the Electrons, in that Neutrinos pack into the cubic containment such that only the outer Spheres can be detected.
Another phenomenon explained by the correct electron spin is electric conductivity of the Elements. Since multiple Neutrinos are compressed into the unit cube, some Neutrinos touch others and this point of contact allows Electrons to pass between them. Certain internal arrangements of the Neutrinos facilitate passing an Electron through the atom and on to the next atom in the molecular lattice of an Element. Other internal arrangements and/or crystal lattices inhibit the passage, and are insulators.
How True Electron Spin Was Discovered
The Astro-Logical Color Cube shown below is labeled with Signs of the Zodiac on the 12 edges, and the faces are labeled with 6 astral bodies.
Each Sign as an edge connects 2 faces in unique pairs. For example, refer to the cube above to see that Leo, the front-right edge, pairs the Sun and Mercury.
There are multiple Sumerian texts that recount the Journeys of Gilgamesh, or make reference to the Journeys.
In the Gilgamesh myth the Signs of the Zodiac are called "double-hours". This is because there are 12 Signs on the ecliptic and 24 hours, so each Sign spans 2 hours. In the myth, what we would call chapters of the story, are termed “steps” of the Journey. The “eternal” journey is told in 24 steps.
The steps each reference a Sign and an astral body, starting with the Sun in Leo (marked with an S on the color-cube journey diagram below). The sequence of the steps are marked with arrows that happen to connect in a looping journey on the color-cube.
When studying the myth, I had previously developed the Geocubic Model, based on spheres compressed inside cubes, and I noticed that by projecting the eternal journey path to the inside of the cube and onto a contained sphere, a smooth looping path was produced. Seeing this, I recognized that I had found the form of the never-ending electron spin as illustrated below.