2. Atomic Fusion
by Tom Gilmore
All graphics by Tom Gilmore
Solar Fusion Symbols
Atomic weight (Z) equals Protons +
Atomic number is the number of Protons (P).
The syntax used for the Isotopes below is (atomic
weight)Element-symbol(atomic number), or
For example Helium is (4)He(2), with 2 Neutrons and 2 Protons.
Fusing Neutrons into Hydrogen
A mainstream solar body initially has both Hydrogen atoms (which generate gravity) and free Neutrons. There are abundant free Neutrinos throughout space. In what is conventionally termed “converting Neutrons into Protons”, the intense gravity of the solar body causes matter to accrete increasing pressure and temperature, and this compresses a Neutrino into a unit-cube, converting 2 Neutrons into a Proton/Electron pair. The mass energy of one Neutron is utilized to compress the Neutrino and generate the gravity of a Proton. A separate article explains the relationship between mass and gravity, and the quark symbols involved in the diagram of the conversion below.
During the compression of the solar body all the Neutrons have converted to Protons, and this acts as an inhibitor to fusion.
Fusing Hydrogen into Helium
At 107K degrees the Hydrogen matter ignites and Hydrogen
molecules burn into Deuterium.
(1)H(1) + (1)H(1) à (2)H(1) + 1 Neutrino + 13.35 mega-electron volts (MeV).
The Deuterium fusion converts a Proton into a Neutron and releases a Neutrino. Until this happens the absence of Neutrons inhibits fusion into Helium, and contra-positively, the Deuterium is unstable and cannot form until Helium fusion is supported by the temperature and pressure.
Two Deuterium atoms must fuse for the process, releasing 2 Neutrinos, which
fly off as solar wind.
Immediately, the 2 Deuterium atoms fuse with a Hydrogen molecule to produce 2 unstable Helium-3 atoms.
2(2)H(1) + 2(1)H(1) à 2(3)He(2)
The 2 unstable Helium-3 atoms immediately fuse into a Helium-4 atom,
releasing the molecule of Hydrogen.
2(3)He(2) à (4)He(2) + 2(1)H(1)
The 26.7 MeV of energy emitted in the process further increases the temperature of the solar body.
The dip in binding energy (see graph above) from Helium(2) to Beryllium(4) inhibits burning Helium until the solar temperature reaches 108K, when the next phase of burning begins (a chain-like fusing of Helium atoms).
(4)He(2)+(4)He(2) à (8)Be(4)
(8)Be(4)+(4)He(2) à (12)C(6)
(12)C(6)+(4)He(2) à (16)O(8)
(16)O(8)+(4)He(2) à (20)Ne(10)
Following is another way to specify the fusions that better shows how Z and P are added together
(4)He(2) (8)Be(4) (12)C(6) (16)O(8)
(4)He(2) (4)He(2) (4)He(2) (4)He(2)
(8)Be(4) (12)C(6) (16)O(8) (20)Ne(10)
Then the fused nuclides combine up to Sulfur(16).
(12)C(6) (12)C(6) (16)O(8)
(12)C(6) (16)O(8) (16)O(8)
(24)Mg(12) (28)Si(14) (32)S(16)
A separate article explains Isotopes, and displays Isotope abundance charts.
Helium has an equal number of Protons and Neutrons, expressed as (4)He(2).
In the higher Elements, the number of excess Neutrons over Protons, is significant because of the Isotope balance formula. The balance formula in terms of Z is represented by “z”.
The excess number of Neutrons is (Z – 2P). In the Geocubic Model the excess (an integer) is termed the “n-Value”.
Since n=(Z - 2P),
The balance z in terms of n is
n= (z =2P+P2/156) -2P = P2/156
For P=14, n=P2/156 ~1.256 (Rounds to 1)
For P=16, n ~ 1.641 (Rounds to 2)
When (Z - 2P) of the fused atom deviates from the n-gradient by more than 1, the fused atom may eject a hydrogen molecule in order to increase the n-value. When ejecting a hydrogen molecule the atom drops down 2 atomic numbers.
The hydrogen molecule (of 2 Hydrogen atoms) is conventionally shown as simply 2H, but is 2(1)H(1).
The Final Fusions
At temperatures over 109K the final phase of mainstream sun burning initiates, building from (20)Neon(10)
For P=18, n=P2/156=2.038 Rounds to 2
For P=24, n=P2/156=3.692 Rounds to 4.
This means that the Neutron count for Argon(18) wants to be equal to the Proton count plus 2, and Chromium(24) wants plus 4.
To accommodate this, the fused Calcium nuclide drops 2 Protons (as a Hydrogen molecule), resulting in an Argon nuclide with an n-value of 2.
(40)Ca(20) à 2H + (38)Ar(18). n=(38 - 18x2)=2
The fusions continue dropping Hydrogen molecules to meet the gradient of n-value demand.
(44)Ti(22) à 2H + (42)Ca(20). n=2
(48)Cr(24) à 2H + (46)Ti(22). n=2
(56)Ni(28) à 2H + (54)Fe(26) à 2H + (52)Cr(24). n=4
(60)Zn(30) à 2H + (58)Ni(28) à 2H + (56)Fe(26). n=4
or à 2H + (58)Ni(28). n=2
In the case of fusion to Zinc(30) which drops to Nickel, some of the (58)Nickel(28) does not reduce to (56)Iron(26). This is because the binding energy of Nickel is only very marginally less than Iron (see graph below).
This explains why Nickel is an aberrant nuclide, off its Isotope balance of n=5 (by -3).
Iron(26) is at the peak of binding energy (see graph above), and the binding energy decreases for subsequent Elements, so the fusion process stops at Iron/Nickel.
Mainstream solar bodies die out, but larger solar bodies end up exploding in a supernova. Elements heavier than Iron/Nickel are produced in supernova explosions, where the massive temperatures support the fusions.
Alpha and Beta Decay
All the solar fusions result in even-numbered Elements. Inexorable alpha and beta decay eventually reduces all the Elements back down to (1)Hydrogen(1) and (4)Heliun(2). Alpha decay sends off a Helium atom, reducing the Element that decays down by 2 atomic numbers. For example (52)Chromium(24) aà (48)Titanium(22) + (4)Helium(2), or
(52)Chromium(24) n=4 aà
Alpha decay results in retaining (in the resulting Element) the excess neutrons (the n-value) of the decayed Element.
The odd-numbered elements are created by beta decays, which either change a Neutron to a Proton (beta-minus) or a Proton to a Neutron (beta-plus). These labels are counter-intuitive, since beta-plus drops 1 atomic number and beta-minus adds 1 atomic number. This labeling resulted from the misconception that an Electron is “captured” when the Neutron converts to a Proton. For the actual process refer to the article on Mass and Gravity.
Successive alpha-decays eventually result in an excess Neutron imbalance to the n-gradient and this induces beta-minus decay, which changes a Neutron to a Proton, reducing the n-value by 2 and increasing the atomic number by 1 (the atomic weight is unchanged). For example,
(59)Iron(26) n=7 a à
(55)Chromium(24) n=7 (balance=3) b- à
Refer to the Isotope abundance charts for the beta decays of the Elements.