Mass and Gravity

by Tom Gilmore
Copyright 2017
All graphics by Tom Gilmore
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Mass

Mass is a miniscule energy wave (of a billion electron-volts) trapped in Baryon particles (Baryons are Protons and Neutrons).

Mass is not a particle, it is energy contained in a particle. 

The Nuclide (Atoms)

Although both the Neutron and Proton are assigned an atomic weight of 1, the Proton has less energy (a small amount given to the paired Electron).  

A Nucleon is a Baryon in atomic containment.  There are free Neutrons not in atomic containment, but all Protons are Nucleons, meaning they do not exist outside of atomic containment.  The group of Nucleons in an atom are termed the Nuclide.  Each Nucleon contributes a small amount of mass to the Nuclide, and this acts as a binding force.

The Neutrino/Geosphere and Gravity

In the Geocubic Model the Cosmos is rigidly partitioned by force planes into unit-cubes about 10-10 meters in diameter.  Being unit-cubes they contain a volume of 1 by definition.  The atomic particles are miniscule compared to the miniscule size of the unit-cube. 

The solar wind is a dense stream of Neutrinos; spherical force surfaces that are neutral (have nearly zero energy) at a volume of 1.  Being neutral it is called a Neutrino.  However, due to the transcendent ratio Pi of the radius of a sphere to its volume, the volume can never exactly equal 1, meaning the Neutrino must have a miniscule surface energy. 

The Isotope Balance Force causes Baryon transformations (Neutrons ßà Protons). 

The Neutrino is involved in the process of Baryon transformations.  In creating a Proton/Electron pair of particles the Neutrino is compressed into a unit-cube.  When compressed it becomes a “Geosphere”, and the surface is energized by the compression, and projects a gravitational field that is the inverse (reciprocal) of the compression.  The energized spherical force surface keeps the Proton and Electron separated (the so-called “Weak Atomic Force”).

As diagrammed above, a sphere of volume 1 has a diameter of ~1.239, and must be compressed to fit inside a unit-cube (which has a diameter of 1).  When the sphere compresses within a diameter of 1, the volume is reduced to 0.52359, which projects an inverse spherical force to a volume of (1/0.52359=1.90898), which has a diameter of ~1.539. 

The (compressed) Geosphere force-surface prevents merging of spheres, so once compressed to within the constricting cube, the Neutrino compresses further in order to fit in with the pre-existing Neutrinos in the cube.  The gravitational field, while having an extent, has no surface to prevent merging.  Consequentially the gravitational field is cumulative, merging the fields from all the compressed spheres in an atom into one combined spheroid gravitational field.  The individual gravitational fields of adjacent atoms merge where they overlap, increasing the strength and extent of the combined gravitational field.  Since the volume of spherically enclosed space increases exponentially with distance, the gravitational force is reduced exponentially by distance from the source. 

Conversions Between Mass and Gravity

When a Baryon transformation takes place in a Nuclide it is termed a “Beta Decay”.  Either a Proton changes to a Neutron (Beta+) or a Neutron changes to a Proton (Beta-).  The Nuclide becomes a different Element. 

There are free Neutrons and Baryon Neutrons (those bound to an atom).  Likewise there are free Neutrinos and compressed Neutrinos (those bound to an atom).  In the Geocubic Model the compressed Neutrino is termed a Geosphere, or simply Sphere.

A Beta decay involves transformations between Neutrinos and Geospheres (compressing and decompressing).  The energy for the compression is provided by the mass energy of a free Neutron (which is replaced by an Electron).

Beta-minus decay compresses a Neutrino and thus converts mass to gravity.
Beta-plus decay decompresses a Geosphere and thus converts gravity to mass.

Quarks and Beta Decay

Quarks come in 2 charges called Up (+2/3) and Down (-1/3), and in 3 “colors”.  The Quarks bind in triads, always with one Quark of each of the 3 colors.  In conversions between Neutrons and Protons, two Neutrons are converted into a Proton/Electron pair (and visa-versa), as expressed below using one of the 3 possible valid color combinations of the 2 Neutrons.
The two Neutrons cannot have the same color Up Quark because the Proton takes both Up Quarks and both cannot be the same color.

Beta decay converts between 2 Neutrons (one free and one a Baryon) and a Proton/Electron pair.

Neutron = +2/3, -1/3, -1/3 = 0            Proton   = +2/3, +2/3, -1/3 = +1
                                                  ß à
Neutron = -1/3, +2/3, -1/3 = 0            Electron = -1/3,  -1/3, -1/3 = -1  

In the diagram below the triangles represent the Quark makeup of the particles.  The triangle vertices are labeled with colored letters.  The letters are U for Up (+2/3) and D for Down (-1/3).  There must be one of each of 3 colors to each particle.  The Mass contained in the Baryons are labeled M.  The white squares represent the cubic containment.  The double arrow represents the 2-way process of beta decay, and the M over the arrow is the Mass energy being converted to Gravity, or Gravity to Mass.

In Beta-minus, the process involves compressing a free Neutrino into the Nuclide.  One Neutron from the Nuclide combines with a free Neutron to re-arrange the Quarks into a Proton/Electron pair.  The Proton retains the Mass from the Neutron in the Nuclide, while the released mass-wave energy of the free Neutron is absorbed in compressing the Neutrino, generating the gravitational field, and energizing the surface, isolating each Proton individually from contact with any Electron.

The Beta-plus radioactive decay of a Nuclide reverses the process, rearranging the 6 Quarks of a Proton/Electron pair into a Neutron in the Nuclide, and a free Neutron, also releasing the compressed Neutrino, while converting the compression energy into the Mass of the free Neutron, and eliminating the additional gravitational distortion contributed by the previously compressed Neutrino.

Beta-minus is conventionally called an "electron capture event".  This is misconceived because the Electron is created (by reassembly of charged Quark particles), not captured. 

The Weak Atomic Force

In creating the Proton/Electron pair, The Neutrino is compressed, the Sphere surface is energized, and the gravitational force generated.  The opposite charges of the Proton and Electron attract but they are kept separate by the force surface of the Sphere, with the Proton contained inside and the Electron spinning on the surface outside, held to the surface by the polarity attraction to the Proton. 

Since gravity is mass inverted, the mass energy of both the Proton and the Neutron are attracted, but only the Proton’s Geosphere generates the gravity.

Neutrinos Misunderstood

There are 3 color types of Protons, here labeled by the combined colors of the Up (+2/3) Quarks.
Red and Blue   (
+2/3, +2/3, -1/3) Purple
Blue & Yellow (
-1/3, +2/3, +2/3) Green
Red & Yellow (
+2/3, -1/3, +2/3) Orange

Since each Proton is contained in a Geosphere and is paired with an Electron, there are considered to be 3 types of Electron, misleadingly labeled Electron, Muon, and Tau (better labeled Purple, Green, and Orange).  Although the Quark color/charge components of all Electrons are identical, it appears that the mass shared with the Electron in creating the Proton/Electron pair is different depending on the 3 Proton color types shown above. This is probably to insure that a correct Electron is utilized in the Beta-plus decay.

The Neutrino is larger than the atom, and has the velocity given it by the ejection from the Sun.  Rarely, a Neutrino in the solar wind of Neutrinos interacts with matter in a manner not yet determined, but is interpreted as meaning there are there are 3 types of Neutrino (Electron Neutrino, Muon Neutrino, and Tau Neutrino).  It is likely that there is only one type of Neutrino, but 3 types of Geospheres.  

Warped Space Foolishness

The gravity projects into space without distorting the dimensions. 

Astro-physicists stupidly claim bent light proves gravity distorts space, but Photons have a weak mass energy that is also attracted to gravity, which is why light passing close to a solar body is bent (the space is not bent).  

It is not possible to warp 3-dimensional space.  Warped 3-dimensional space would require a 4th dimension of space for it to occur in.  There is no evidence that “higher dimensions” of space exist in reality (but that does not stop idiots from pretending they can imagine it). 

In "The Meaning of Relativity" 5th Edition, on Page 26, Einstein writes: "classical mechanics is in accord with the principle of special relativity if the two hypotheses regarding scale and time are made." The two hypotheses are specified on Page 25, that: "1. Time is absolute", and "2. Length is absolute."  This precludes “warped space”.

  

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