The Carbon Cycle

by Tom Gilmore
Copyright 2017
All graphics by Tom Gilmore
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This article builds on the principles of the atomic bonding force and the crystal linking force.

Entropy

Entropy is a general term for the force of equalization. For example, entropy quickly transfers heat between elements of different temperature. This is seen in plumbing where hot and cold water flows are combined in varying proportions to quickly produce a flow of intermediate warmth.

Entropy also equalizes concentrations of different air molecules. This is used in breathing, where thin membranes in the lungs allow the transfer between concentrated carbon-dioxide in the blood and the oxygen in the breathed-in air. Very quickly oxygen moves from the air into the blood, and carbon-dioxide moves from the blood into the air, until there are equal concentrations of both gasses. Then the blood moves to the cells where carbohydrates combine with oxygen to generate energy, with the byproduct of carbon-dioxide carried off by the blood to return to the lungs for transfer with the air. This process is the back half of what is termed the carbon cycle. The other half of the carbon cycle is in the plant converting sunlight into sugar, to be consumed by the animal.

The Chlorophyll Molecule

All life forms require energy of some kind. The primary source of energy is the Sun. In the Carbon cycle, energy is stored in the Bias planes of the Carbon atom (see article on crystallization). The Carbon cycle involves the plant producing sugar and the animal consuming the plant. The plant uses a process called photosynthesis to convert sunlight energy into Carbon-based molecular energy (sugar).

The most common form of chlorophyll is C55H72MgN4O5. There are a number of variations but the core is a single atom of Magnesium surrounded by 2 bonded and 2 un-bonded Nitrogen atoms. The 2 un-bonded Nitrogen are bonded to surrounding Carbon atoms, and the two bonded Nitrogen atoms connect the Magnesium atom to a surrounding hydrophilic (water absorbing) carbocyclic casing. This core absorbs light mainly in the blue and red spectra (and reflects the green), transmitting an electrical (ionic) charge to a lipophilic phytyl tail (a string of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms dangling from the casing). Carbon Dioxide in the air is energized by the transfer, and the Carbon atom is separated from the Oxygen atoms (this is covered in the next section on Bias planes).

The pyhtyl tail serves to create the Carbon Rings that are central to the sugar crystals. Water is used in the chemical reaction creating the sugar, and replacement water is drawn in by the hydrophilic casing. (The hydrophilic casing attracts water but repels oil, so when the sugar is produced it is ejected).

The chlorophyll molecule has two mirrored (chiral) forms, and they produce mirrored sugar molecules known as dextrose and laevulose, named for the chiral reflection of light to the right or left (this is explained later on).

Bias Plane Energy

The diagrams below show the internal arrangements of spherical force surfaces (neutrinos) for the Element forms relevant to the carbon cycle. In Cube/4 and Cube/6 the alignment of Sphere centers energize internal planes called the Bias. Cube/2 and Cube/10 are inert forms that have no Bias (they are inert because they have no internal Bias energy for the Law of Lesser Energy to reduce.

In the Geocubic Model the Carbon Bias consists of two diagonal planes that cross on the cube diagonal. Six Carbon atoms crystallize in a Carbon Ring as diagrammed below left. Go to the article on crystallization for more detail.

Each diagonal Bias plane has the energy of 56 kcal. There are 12 Bias planes in the Carbon Ring of 6 Carbon atoms, for a total energy content of 672 kcal.

The crystal core of the dextrose sugar crystal is shown above right. It has the same hexagonal arrangement of Carbon atoms, but with single Bias planes connected in a different manner, and an Oxygen atom is clathrated (trapped) at the center. In creating the sugar molecule the Bias planes have been rearranged, and the energy of 3 planes has been released. The number of diagonal planes has been reduced to 9 (1 diagonal plane in each of the 6 Carbon atoms, and 3 diagonal planes in the central Oxygen atom).

Carbon Ring 12 planes of 56 kcal = 672 kcal
Sugar Crystal 9 planes of 56 kcal = 504 kcal

Carbon Di-Oxide

Atomic bonds are a loaning of internal Spheres between atoms. The molecule of Carbon Dioxide loans 2 Spheres from the Carbon(6) atom to both atoms of Oxygen(8). This sharing is shown below by arrows. The 2 Oxygen atoms take on the inert form of Cube/10 (Neon), and the Carbon atom takes on the inert form of Cube/2 (Helium).

The process of photosynthesis restores the Bias planes of Carbon, taking back the 4 Spheres from the 2 Oxygen atoms (and releasing them as a molecule of Oxygen).

The Carbohydrate

The molecule of sugar is based on 6 carbohydrate strings. The energy of a carbohydrate is in the single Bias plane of the Carbon atom. Five of the 6 carbohydrate strings (as shown below) incorporate an Oxygen atom (HCOH). This has no effect on the Bias energy and is only included in order for the Carbon-cycle (which involves H2O (water)) to operate. One string is (HOH), omitting the Oxygen atom (that 6th Oxygen atom is clathrated at the center of the crystal). The atomic bonding of the strings have the effect of reducing the number of Spheres in the Carbon(6) atoms from 6 to 4, resulting in Carbon(6)Beryllium-form(4).

Beryllium-form supports one diagonal plane, as illustrated above using a yellow plane.

These six carbohydrates are separate molecules, interconnected by the crystal linking force passing through the central clathrated Oxygen atom

The Chemistry of the Carbon Cycle

The following conventional formula for the formation of sugar hides a multi-step process.

6(CO2) + 6(H2O) + 672 kcal = C6H12O6 + 6O2.

The multi-step process is diagrammed below, and the numbered steps in the diagram are described following:

[1]. The chlorophyll molecule uses the Magnesium/Nitrogen core to convert sunlight into the internal Bias-plane energy that, [2] eliminates the atomic bonds binding the Carbon atom to the Oxygen atoms, casting off the two Oxygen atoms as a molecule of oxygen.
(CO2) + 112 kcal = (C) + (O2).

[3]. The Carbon atom split from the carbon-dioxide is attracted by the crystallization force to attach to the end of the phytyl tail of the chlorophyll molecule (it does not bond to it). When 6 Carbon atoms have attached, a 672 kcal Carbon Ring breaks off.
6(CO2) + 672 kcal = 6(C) + 6(O2).

[4]. The carbon ring reacts with water stored in the carbocyclic casing to produce 6 carbohydrates that link by the crystal force into a sugar crystal, burning 3 Bias planes of energy [4A].
6(C) + 6(H2O) = C6H12O6 + 168 kcal

In completing the carbon cycle, the animal ingests the sugar (and breathes oxygen) in order to [5] burn off the Bias-plane energy in the sugar.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6(CO2) + 6(H2O) + 504 kcal.

The Oxygen bonds with the Carbon atoms, converting the 9 Bias-planes to energy [5A], and releasing 6 molecules of carbon-dioxide [5B], and 6 molecules of water [5C].

Replenishment

The Carbon-cycle begins with carbon-dioxide and the water and ends with the same quantity of carbon-dioxide and water, that join the pool of resources to be reused by the plant to produce sugar from sunlight, as the cycle is repeated.

To review, the chemistry of the carbon cycle (color coded) is:

6(CO2) + 6x112=672 kcal = 6(C) + 6(O2)
6(C) + 6(H2O) = C6H12O6 (sugar) + 168 kcal

C6H12O6 + 6(O2) = 6(CO2) + 6(H2O) + 504 kcal

Geocubic Model of the Sugar Crystal

Recommended reading: the atomic bonding force

After the chlorophyll molecule energizes a Carbon Ring the Carbon Ring reacts (due to the Law of Lesser Energy) with 6 molecules of water, breaking the bonds between the Oxygen and Hydrogen atoms of water, and rearranging new bonds with less energy (converting 3 Bias planes to energy). Five bond strings of H-C-O-H are formed, and one string of H-C-H. The Carbon atoms of these 6 strings have only one diagonal plane each, and are hexagonally arranged in the original carbon ring positions, but with altered diagonal directions. There are no bonds holding the clathrated Oxygen in place (the crystal force from the 6 planes crossing through the central Oxygen atom hold it in place).

Normally an un-bonded Oxygen atom is precluded by having perfect symmetry in 3 dimensions, but when clathrated by the intersecting Bias planes, the 8 Spheres are skewed by 3 of the 4 possible cube diagonal-planes, as depicted below, and thus no longer violates excluded absolute symmetry.

The diagrams below show how the carbohydrates are bound in 3 pairs by the Bias plane crystal alignments. The pair shown upper left has the single H-C-H string, but this can locate in any of the 6 crystal positions. The 5 Void (empty) Hydrogen atoms are shown in faint gray and reduced size, so as not to clutter the graphic of the combined molecule. The Carbon atoms have a bold black front, and the Oxygen atoms have a blue front (the center Oxygen atom is repeated in the 3 pairs). The combined molecule (C6H12O6) is shown lower right without the crystal Bias planes. Notice that the molecule forms a compact group with 12 of the 17 atomic bonds (dark arrows) crossing at the vertices of a hexagon.

The 24 atoms of the sugar crystal form a roughly spheroid ball that is 5 cubes wide (X-axis), 5 cubes tall (Y-axis), and 5 cubes deep (Z-axis). The sugar crystal combines 6 carbohydrate molecules by linking them through a central clathrated Oxygen atom.

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